The pH and/or acidity of a food are generally used to determine processing requirements and applicability of specific regulations. The approximate ranges of pH values of common food products are compiled by the FDA in this table.
Acidified Low-Acid Foods
Non-acidic products, including most vegetables and fresh meat can be acidified to produce acidified low-acid foods. These products are commonly called “pickles” or “pickled products”. Because there is a risk of botulism if these foods are not properly acidified and processed there are very specific regulations that pertain to these foods. Included in this section are a number of resources addressing this category of foods.
A number of acidic foods are not considered to fall into the acidified low-acid food category. To determine if your product is an acidified low-acid food consult the following document:
Acidified Foods Manufacturing School Manual (North Carolina State University & Grocery Manufacturer's Association)
Regulations Pertaining to Acidified Low-Acid Foods
Acidified low-acid foods processed in California must comply with the California cannery regulations.
This guide is a series of questions and answers concerning the importation of low-acid and acidifed foods. This pamphlet describes when and how processors of low-acid canned foods and acidified foods can register their establishments with the FDA.
Additional Information for Acidified-Low Acid Foods
Acidification of Garlic added to Oil (FDA Safe Practices for Food Processes) Section 3.5
(Section 3.5 is copied below)
Product: Garlic-in-oil. The product is not held hot or cold. The ingredients of the product are chopped fresh garlic and oil. The product is intended to be distributed and stored at ambient temperature for extended shelf life. Outbreaks have been associated with C. botulinum toxin in garlic-in-oil. Microbiological hazards: C. botulinum toxin production.
Step 1. Processing: Oil poured into chopped garlic in a bottle. Although no heat is applied, vegetative pathogens are not associated with this food. Go to Table A.
Table A: pH> 4.6 and high aw (not specified).
Step 2. Decision: Product may be a TCS food.
Product Assessment: No identified product characteristic that prevents spore-forming pathogen growth. Antimicrobial properties of garlic will prevent the growth of vegetative pathogens.
Decision options: Challenge testing, predictive microbial model, reformulation to lower pH with acetic or phosphoric acid to < 4.6, refrigerate (TCS food), store hot (TCS food), or at ambient temperature for a limited time less than the estimated lag phase for the pathogens of concern, or not marketable.
1Flavored oil will present negligible hazard due to lack of C. botulinum survival or growth in 100% oil.
- Overview of Acid and Acidified Foods
- Sample Record Forms
The sample records contained in this section were prepared by the Northeast Center for Food Entrepreneurship (NECFE) and funded by the United States Department of Agriculture - National Institute of Food Agriculture (USDA-NIFA) Grant # 2009-51110-20147 and Cornell University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. These sample records are for educational purposes. Each company would have to customize these forms to fulfill regulatory compliance.
- Sample Processing Records Form (PDF 50 KB)
- Sample Processing Records for Refrigerated/Frozen Foods Form (PDF 85 KB)
- Sample Processing Records for Foods Containing Solids Form (PDF 16 KB)
- Sample Recall Records Form (PDF 87 KB)
- Sample Ingredient Records Form (PDF 73 KB)
- Sample Distribution Records Form (PDF 87 KB)
- Sample Training Records Form (PDF 67 KB)
- Cornell Scheduled Process Form for Acid, Acidified or Low Water Activity Foods or PDF 30 KB)
North Carolina State University
From the North Carolina State University Department of Food Science.
When acidified low acid or low acid canned foods are shipped across state lines the food processor must register with the FDA in addition to the appropriate state agency. This article describes the process for filing a scheduled process with the FDA.
- Acidified Foods Only Better Process Control School at NCSU (PDF 631 KB)
- Acidified Foods Manufacturing School (Half Online, Half In-Person)
- Acidified Foods: Formulating Dressings, Sauces and Marinades or (PDF 37 KB)
- Developing A HACCP Plan for Acidified Foods or (PDF 20 KB)
- Herbal Foods or (PDF 20 KB)
University of Georgia
- Better Process Control School for Acidified Foods (PDF 146 KB)
University of Tennessee
- Manufacturing Acidified Foods in Tennessee (PDF 795 KB)