UC Food Blog
Last week (April 21, 2010) the Institute of Medicine issued an official report claiming that Americans consume too much salt and urging that new government standards be established for "acceptable sodium content" in foods. Two UC Davis nutrition experts disagree.
In November, Judith Stern, a professor of nutrition and internal medicine, and David McCarron, an adjunct nutrition professor, both at UC Davis, published a study in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology that questioned the scientific logic and feasibility of broadly limiting salt intake in humans. (See journal article online.)
After examining data from sodium intake studies worldwide and a critical body of neuroscience research on sodium appetite (innate behaviors that drive us to consume salt), Stern and McCarron found compelling evidence indicating that humans naturally regulate their salt intake within a narrowly defined physiologic range. They found that Americans' average salt intake falls well within this range.
They suggest that government-led attempts to nationally control salt intake are simplistic, misguided, and not based in science and, instead, advise that individuals who are at special risk for high blood pressure and related diseases consult their physicians for nutritional advice, including appropriate levels of salt consumption.
(To view a flash video and UC Davis press release from October 2009, click here.)Nutrition Journal.
The review, written by three Chico State professors and UC Cooperative Extension livestock advisors Glenn Nader and Stephanie Larson, says the diet of exclusively grass gives beef a higher amount of Vitamin A and E precursors, boosts cancer-fighting antioxidants and reduces overall fat content.
"However, consumers should be aware that the differences in (fatty acid) content will also give grass-fed beef a distinct grass flavor and unique cooking qualities," the researchers wrote
In addition, the fat from grass-finished beef may have a yellowish appearance from the elevated carotenoid content. However, the slight changes in taste and appearance may be well worth getting used to.
Along with improved nutrients and lower fat in grass-fed beef, the product has a healthier lipid profile than its conventional counterpart. Health professionals worldwide recommend reduced consumption of saturated fat, trans fat and cholesterol. Grass-fed beef helps consumers meet the recommendation.
Raising cattle on the range also results in an improved omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid ratio in the beef, the authors said. A healthy diet should consist of roughly one to four times more omega-6 fatty acids than omega-3 fatty acids. However, the typical American diet tends to contain 11 to 30 times more omega-6 than omega -3, a phenomenon that may be a significant factor in the rising rate of inflammatory disorders in the United States.
Cooking grass-fed beef to perfection requires a few adjustments. For example, because it is low in fat, it should be coated with extra virgin olive oil, truffle oil or another light oil to enhance flavor and improve browning. The high protein and low fat levels mean the beef will usually require 30 percent less cooking time.
More cooking instructions plus information about grass-fed beef's health benefits, niche marketing, labeling and cost of production are available on the Grass-Fed Beef Web page, developed by the UC and Chico State researchers who wrote the research review for Nutrition.
The Africa Nutributter studies found that children preferred a sweet paste, but the scientists believe regional flavors may make the supplement more appealing. For Guatemala, they plan a cinnamon-flavored Nutributter; for Bangledesh, the paste will be flavored with cumin and cardamom.
UC Davis nutrition professor Kathryn Dewey, who leads the project, said it remains to be seen whether Nutributter will be adapted for American consumers.
“I personally think it is marketable,” she said.
Each four-teaspoon serving of Nutributter paste, which comes in a ketchup-packet-like pouch, contains 40 essential vitamins and minerals. Unlike most other nutrient supplements, the product also provides 120 calories of energy plus protein and essential fatty acids. Nutributter is not meant as a replacement for local foods or breast milk, but rather to be added to youngsters’ and pregnant mothers’ traditional diets.
"More than 3 million children die each year of malnutrition due not just to a lack of calories, but also to poor diet quality, particularly insufficient intake of micronutrients like zinc and iron, which are so critical to healthy growth and development," Dewey said.
The idea for the nutrition supplement came from the successful use of Plumpy'nut, a peanut-based food developed by French researchers for famine relief. Each Plumpy-nut packet has 500 calories and children can gain 1 to 2 pounds a week by eating it twice daily. Plumpy-nut is meant to temporarily serve as the sole food source in emergency situations.
The UC Davis Nutributter team heads the International Lipid-based Nutrient Supplements Project (iLiNS). Last year, the project won a $16 million Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation grant. A 2008 UC Davis news release announcing the Gates Foundation grant gives more details about Nutributter and its use in African nations. More information is also available on the iLiNS Web site.
The combination of UC's successful strawberry breeding program with an array of north-to-south micro-climates allows California producers to harvest strawberries somewhere in the state practically year round.
This year's wet, cool winter, however, is getting some of California's traditional springtime strawberry powerhouses off to a slow start, according to UC statewide strawberry specialist Kirk Larson, based at the UC South Coast Research and Extension Center in Orange County. There haven't been too many frost or freeze events in Southern California, but it has been well below normal temperatures, resulting in uneven ripening.
UC has an undeniably critical role in the success of the state's strawberry industry. UC-developed cultivars are grown on 65 percent of California strawberry acreage. Speaking to the productivity of UC varieties, those plants produce 85 percent of the state's fruit.
"The big beneficiary of all of this is the consumer," Larson said. "Because there is just so much good fruit, the price is usually affordable."
One of the most popular UC varieties, Albion, was selected by Larson and UC geneticist Doug Shaw for its flavorful, sweet berries, productivity and long shelf life. Other popular UC varieties are Palomar, San Andreas, Diamante, Camarosa and Ventana.
Shaw noted that many California place names and plant variety names honor the state's Hispanic heritage. Shaw wanted the new variety to honor California's English heritage, in the person of explorer Sir Francis Drake.
"But I discovered that 'Drake' is a bad name for a strawberry," Shaw said.
Sir Francis Drake dubbed California 'Nueva Albion' when he claimed the territory. Albion, the oldest recorded name for the island of Great Britain, became the label for a strawberry variety now grown on about 15,000 acres in California.
More information on the UC Strawberry Breeding Program is available on its Web site.
When Solano County 4-H’ers compete in their annual Chili Cookoff, part of the countywide Project Skills Day, the competition is as fierce as some of the hot peppers. This year’s cookoff was no different.
When it was all over but the tasting, the “Beanless Babes Do Beans,” a duo from the Maine Prairie 4-H Club, Dixon, won the championship, followed by “The Golden Spice Girls,” a trio from the Tremont 4-H Club, Dixon.
Both teams provided unusual recipes: the Beanless Babes opted for elk burger instead of the traditional beef and named their chili, “Hunter’s Chili.” The Golden Spice Girls used beer, chocolate, coffee and sugar in their chili, naming it “Bad Character Chili.” The Tremont 4-H’ers derived the name from a great-grandmother who used to refer to folks who indulged too much as “bad characters.”
Judges proclaimed both dishes as delicious, but especially the Beanless Babes' dish made by Lauren Kett and Rebecca Ivanusich.
“It was really good,” said judge Jim Baumann, owner of The Point Restaurant, Rio Vista. Fellow judges Trish San Nicolas of the Golden Hills 4-H Club, Vacaville, and Jose Topete of the U.S. Coast Guard, based in Rio Vista, agreed. They said they were impressed with the taste, creativity and presentation.
The recipe was based on a recipe published by the North American Hunting Club. “This was the first time we made it,” said Rebecca. Lauren's father provided the elk burger.
The second-place chili, made by Kaylee Lindgren, Savannah Woodruff and Hannah Crawford-Steward, also drew praise from the judges. "Wonderful!" said San Nicolas.
Eight teams from 4-H clubs throughout the county competed in the Solano County 4-H Chili Cookoff, held earlier this year in Riverview School, Rio Vista.
Also participating were six other teams: the Three Amigos from the Rio Vista 4-H Club; Red Hot Chili Peppers from Sherwood Forest 4-H Club, Vallejo; Suisun Valley Cowboys from the Suisun Valley 4-H Club, Fairfield-Suisun; 4-H Iron Chefs from Tremont 4-H Club, Dixon; and the Chili Chicks and Firecrackers, two teams from the Vaca Valley 4-H Club, Vacaville.
Here are the winning recipes. Add more hot peppers for "more kick"; adjust to preferred taste.
By Beanless Babes Do Beans
Lauren Kett and Rebecca Ivanusich
Maine Prairie 4-H Club, Dixon
1 large onion
2 hot peppers
1 bell pepper
1 tablespoon butter
1 28-ounce can whole tomatoes
1 6-ounce can tomato paste
1 cup water
1 beef bouillon cube
2 cans kidney beans
1/2 teaspoon garlic
2 teaspoons salt
2 teaspoons Italian seasoning
2 teaspoons chili powder
1 bay leaf
Brown meat. Chop onion and peppers and fry in butter until limp. Add all ingredients. Simmer for at least two hours. Serves several hungry persons.
Bad Character Chili
By Southern Spice Girls
Hannah Crawford-Stewart, Kaylee Lindgren and Savannah Woodruff, Tremont 4-H Club, Dixon
3 cups onions, diced
1 pound lean ground beef
1 can (14-ounces) dark beer
1/4 cup brown sugar
1 tablespoon cocoa
2 teaspoons chipotle spice
1/4 teaspoon salt
1 28-ounce can drained, diced tomatoes
1-1/2 cups coffee, made from caramel-flavored beans
1-1/2 tablespoons garlic, minced
1 pound beef sirloin, cubed
4 ounces of espresso
2 6-ounce cans tomato paste
1 packet beefy onion soup mix
1 teaspoon cumin
1 teaspoon coriander
2 28-ounce cans drained kidney beans
1 7-ounce can mild green chilies, diced
In a large pot, cook onions, garlic and meat until brown. Add beer and stir over medium heat for 3 minutes. Add espresso, brown sugar and tomato paste. Stir in cocoa, soup mix and spices. Stir in one can of kidney beans, tomatoes and green chilies. Reduce heat and simmer for 1-1/2 hours, stir occasionally. Add flavored coffee and one can of kidney beans. Reduce heat and simmer for 1/2 hour, stir occasionally. Optional toppings: fried onions and sour cream. Serves 6 to 8.
The Solano County 4-H Youth Development Program is headquartered at 501 Texas St., Fairfield.
They won with hunter's chili